Ever wondered how the people lived before thousands of years? What they ate, etc? Lots of questions hit the mind and we start searching for the right answers to quench the thirst of knowledge. At present their existence is found only in books or in some films. In today’s modern world people hardly find the time to think about the past, they believe in running every minute to enrich their future. People in ancient civilizations were harder working as they didn’t have the comforts of electricity or mechanical power. Despite lacking the basic necessity they were able to build grand structures and had knowledge of astronomy. To know more about the oldest civilizations in the world, kindly look into the description below:
9. The Aztecs Civilization
This civilization had flourished in the present cities of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada. Slowly they shifted towards central Mexico around 12th century BC. According to historians, the ancestors of modern Mexicans are Mesoamericans or people of Aztec Empire. When it comes to religion, they believed in pleasing or worshipping God by sacrificing humans. This civilization made more emphasis on the establishment of developed villages. Not to miss out, their dresses varied according to different age groups. They have divided into numerous groups and the total population counted to millions. Apart from the above, the Aztecs were fond of music, crafts, and sciences.
8. The Roman Civilization
Another great civilization that ruled most of Europe is the Roman Civilization. It began near the river Tiber during the 8th century BC. They were successful in ruling Mediterranean islands, northern Africa, Europe, Britain, and westerns Asia. Roman Empire was unified under the leadership of Julius Caesar and later took the form of a republic. Wealth creation and providing basic security to public life was propagated by Augustus, another great king of Roman Empire. During ancient times Rome was swirling with traffic of chariots. Their society followed the hierarchical pattern. The major occupations practiced by ancient Romans were trade and farming.
7. The Persian Civilization
Considered as a powerful empire among the ancient civilizations of the world, the Persian Empire had ruled the world for nearly 200 years. They had spread their empire over 3.2 million square kilometers. Well-known for its great rulers and military prowess, the empire commanded parts of India, parts of Greece and parts of Egypt. Earlier the Persian Empire was divided into small fragments. Each fragment was lead by their respective leaders. The entire kingdom was united under the command of King Cyrus II. By 533BC the Emperor had conquered many parts of Babylonia and India. They were successful in ruling the Central Asia, Egypt and Europe.
6. Ancient Greek Civilization
It lasted from 1200 BC till 323 BC and had a great influence on the western civilization. The Ancient Greek Civilization started after the termination of Mycenaean civilization and flourished till the death of Alexander the Great. This civilization was responsible for introducing great philosophical and political thoughts to the world. During that time the country was divided into small and independent states. These states were termed as poleis and were spread across the country. Slowly due to increase in population, some of these people migrated from one place to other and some states got unified in the process. One of the notable features during this time was the military strategy used by the Greek people. They were able to defend the mighty Persian Empire with the well-planned attacks.
5. Chinese Civilization
This civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. One of them existed near the Yangtze River. However, the first dynasties to rule were Xia dynasty. Some of the ancient texts which are believed to be written by Xia Dynasty dates back before 1700 BC. The Zhou Dynasty, the Xia Dynasty, the Qin Dynasty and the Shang Dynasty were some of the well-known dynasties in China. The citizens of ancient Chinese Civilization were less influenced by the outsiders. With a vision of development, the people of ancient China had created wonders in the field of printing, gunpowder, paper and silk materials.
4. Mayan Civilization
This civilization was popular for its hieroglyphic script, a developed writing system. It was also well-known for it’s in depth knowledge of astronomy, architecture, mathematics, and arts. Also known as a Mesoamerican civilization, this was created by the Maya’s. This civilization was spread across Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador. From the year 2000 BC-250 AD witnessed the reign of Maya people. They were able to produce maize, chili peppers, beans and squashes as a staple food. Construction of huge temples was one of the major achievements of this civilization. Apart from temples, creations of cities which were connected by trading systems were notable. However, Mayan calendar applied mathematics and it was an advanced calendar.
3. Ancient Egyptian civilization
It had flourished along the Nile River; this region is now well –known as Egypt. Egyptian Civilization saw the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt in the year 3150 BC. Agriculture was the main reason for the existence of this civilization. The Nile River played a greater role in improving the soil fertility and eventually leads to increase in agricultural yield. With better irrigation systems and flood control mechanism, Egyptian Civilization witnessed dense population and cultural development. Slowly this region gained dominance due to its strong military and stable kingdoms. Some of the marvelous pyramids and beautiful temples were built during this period. The major reason for such constructions was good techniques used in quarrying and surveying.
2. Indus Valley Civilization
This civilization was once spread across Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northwest India. It existed between 3300-1300 BC. It survived along the fertile regions of Indus River. According to historians, the population of this civilization was five million. They had good knowledge of metallurgy and handicrafts. To our surprise, the town planning of this old place consisted proper sewerage system, water supply, and baked houses. It can be held as a first old civilization to have urban clusters. They were also advance in terms of technology. The inhabitants of Indus Civilization were able to measure mass, time and length with accuracy. The presence of bronze vessels, terracotta and jewelry indicate their interests and level of craftsmanship. Trade was one of the major occupations in this civilization.
1. Mesopotamian Civilization
This civilization existed around six thousand years ago and it was located in Iraq. It is believed to be a fertile valley lying between the river Euphrates and Tigris. It is estimated by the historians, the Mesopotamia Civilization was formed between 3300 BC and 750 BC. This civilization shows the first traits of civilized society. This civilization was dominated by the Akkadians and Sumerians. They used to believe that the shape of the earth was like a flat disc. When we talk about the society, it was lead by a male member and was more like a patriarchal society. They had an advanced irrigation system and agriculture was practiced as an occupation. The temples in this civilization acted as banks and also gave loans on credit.
The above description describes the oldest civilizations in the world. Most of them were depended on agriculture as an occupation. Many of them had good knowledge about technology and architecture. They were able to give direction in the formation of a civilized society. It can be held as a transformation period from dark ages to a civilized society.