Coffee is one of the commercial crops that have been cultivated in India from the 18th century. During 1600 A.D the saga of Indian coffee cultivation began by the legendary holy saint Baba Budan in the state of Karnataka.
Now India has considered as one of the leading coffee producing country in the world ranking among the top 10 coffee producing countries. The southern part of India grows coffee as far as quality and quantity are concerned. Some other states also produce coffee where the growing condition to cultivate this cash crop fulfil the basic needs to help the coffee plants to grow effortlessly.
Here is a brief account of the largest coffee producing states in India in descending order.
The state Mizoram or the land of the hill people situated in the north east of India and the main economy of the state fully depend on growing crops like coffee, rubber tea, etc. The geographical condition of the mid-hill ranges of the state supports the coffee plants to grow as there are much rainfall and sloppy mountain land with required warmth throughout the year. The soil is partially acidic fertile and well -drained during rain, that has found to be congenial for the successful plantation of the crop. As the benefit regarding economy from the cultivation of coffee promises the farmers a favourable return, so the state government is encouraging the cultivation of coffee as a resource for livelihood, so a drastic step has been taken to grow coffee in an area of 10,000 hectares in recent ten years.
Northeast states are tea growing region. But in 1853 coffee plantation started at Cacher district in Assam as the source of earring for the local people. The coffee board of India and soil conservation department jointly took the initiatives to engage the tribal people in coffee cultivation. Their mission was to stop soil erosion by planting big shed trees and to stop jhum cultivation. Nowadays many tribal people in Assam is cultivating coffee and earning their livings. The amount of production in this state is less, but the quality of the coffee is unique and the mildly acidic in nature with fruity essence and aroma.
This North-east state is one of the largest coffee producing states. The coffee produced here is purely organic that has a huge demand in coffee market. The land resource department has introduced coffee plantation on a large scale with collaboration with CBI (Coffee Board of India) in the state. According to a report, more than 17.32 Lakhs coffee plants has been planted in different districts of the state, and the perennial crop is established to cover approximately 50,000-hectare area of total state land in coming 15 years.
Tripura is a Mountainous state with high hills and hillocks, widespread valleys and rivers. The state is famous worldwide for its coffee production. The majority of the population live in villages, among which maximum people earn their living by cultivation. Almost, 59% of the total coffee production in India, produced by this state. In the year 2016, the state had produced six MT coffees. This year, it is being expected that the production limit will exceed 13 to 14 Mt. At present, the coffee plantation project has been undertaken in Tulakona and Mekhlipara in West district and Sabroom district to the south respectively during the ninth plan, and the plantation will be continued on a large scale in Jampui hill are during the tenth plan.
Being one of the mountainous states of north-east of India Meghalaya is the wettest state as it experiences an average of 12,000mm. rainfall in a year. The total geographical area of Meghalaya is around 22,429 km, and it is the third largest state in the north –east. Agriculture is the main source of earning hers and coffee is one of the money earning crops that grown in the high altitude area (1300 to 4000 ft high), and the coffee plants grow here naturally. The coffee beans are organic in nature and very high quality. But due to lack of proper marketing, there are not many farmers are interested in growing coffee in the state. The farmers of Meghalaya are now being encouraged to harvest coffee and taught the proper way of drying the coffee beans by expertise.
The costal state Odisha is one of the states that are experiencing a steady growth in the industrial sector and agricultural sector. Unlike other states, coffee cultivation started in mid-1958, to introduce a profitable crop in Odisha. Nowadays the Koraput region is the best coffee producer in the country. The gross amount of coffee produced here in 2014-15 is 550 Mt. The benefits from the coffee cultivation has changed the lifestyle of local people like lots of local people has been employed in different works like nursery production of the coffee plants, fertiliser application and processing works. The whole economic picture of this Koraput region, which was once poverty-stricken, changed due to the employment in the coffee plantation. The type of coffee grown here is Arabica, for which moderate warmth and high rainfall is needed. Koraput, Keonjhar Rayagada is the main coffee producing area in the state of Odisha.
4. ANDHRA PRADESH:
With the production of 7425 MT, Andhra Pradesh has occupied the 5th position in coffee producing state in India. There are also two types of coffee produced here, Arabica and Robusta. Coffee was not the traditional crop here, but Andhra Pradesh government started coffee plantation in 1960 to provide a sustainable and profitable employment to the tribal people so that they can livelihood coffee plantation are mainly growing in the region of Eastern Ghats and the east of Godavari district, Paderu, Mavedumilli. The temperature here is moderate, and the total climate of this region supports the coffee plan to grow successfully. The growth rate per hectare is around 300 kg which is a very good figure regarding production.
3. TAMIL NADU:
Tamil Nadu in the south India is a well-figured coffee plantation region, which produced 17875MT of coffee in the last financial year. So this is a major coffee producing state in India. The major portion of Tamil Nadu coffee plantation produced Arabica coffee, and Robusta coffee is also produced in small quantity in some parts of the state. Arabica coffee has a distinct essence and it famous as mountain coffee. Pulneys, Nilgiris and Anaimalais are the main regions of coffee plantation.
Kerala the god’s own country is in the 2nd position in producing coffee. The total production is 67700 MT which is more than 20% of the total coffee production in India. The major part o Kerala produces Robusta coffee; Wayanad and Travancore are the main regions of Kerala that yield 95% of the total coffee production. Most of the coffee plantation flourishes at about 1200 metre above sea level. Per hectare coffee collection is 790kg.
Karnataka is the leading state in India regarding Coffee production. Among all the Indian States that produced more or less coffee, Karnataka shares almost 70% of the total production in the last financial year, Karnataka has produced 2.33 lakh MT coffees, which is the highest yield. The type of coffee Produced here are mainly Robusta. Also, Arabica grows in small quantity. The supportive climate, sloppy mountain, high altitude and adequate rainfall are the reason that helps the coffee plantation to flourish here. The main regions are Chikmagalur, Hassan. Also, Mysore and Shimoga produce moderate quantity. Karnataka is also in leading position as far as yielding is concerned—1000 Kilogramme per Hectare.
So Friends! Perhaps we never bother about so many information while drinking a hot or cold cup of coffee. But the information will surely increase the love for coffee as our country India has a big coffee plantation in different states. The process of bringing coffee from crops to our cups is a long way of processing. Being a favourite morning beverage globally, coffee has different benefits if taken moderately. So sweep away your tiredness and get refreshed by a cup of coffee.